Foods & Crops That Use The Most Pesticides & Fertilizers, & Foods With The Most Pesticide Residue

Pesticides and fertilizers are used in modern commercial and industrial agriculture for the production of different foods and crops.

In this guide, we list the foods and crops (including fibre crops) that use the most synthetic pesticides and fertilizers at the producer level. 

We’ve also looked at the foods and food groups that might contain the most pesticide residue at the consumer level when individuals go to eat their food.

 

Summary – Foods & Crops That Use The Most Pesticides & Fertilizers, & Foods With The Most Pesticide Residue

Overall

This guide essentially contains two parts.

The first is pesticide and fertilizer use at the farm level on different foods and crops. This includes food crops going directly to humans, food crops going to livestock as feed, and fibre crops like cotton. We also look at how the waste of different foods contributes to pesticide and fertilizer input waste at the farm level.

The second part is pesticide residue on different foods and food groups at the consumer level. We go into different information such as the individual foods and food groups that contain the highest dosage of pesticide, the highest number of different types of pesticide chemicals, and other relevant information about pesticide residue on food. 

 

Foods & Crops With The Most Pesticide Use

In terms of pesticide use/application at the farm level, we only have US statistics to draw analysis from (and currently no worldwide data)

Livestock production is responsible for 37% of all pesticide application (livestock is an indirect cause of pesticide use via the animal feed that is grown for them. Beef might be one of foods that uses pesticides for animal feed)

On source (prevention.com) says that strawberries were the heaviest dosed crop in America in 2011, and raspberries were found to have more different types chemicals on them than strawberries (39 compared to 36). That same source said though that when it comes to pesticide contamination, certain animal meats, and animal products like milk, cheese and butter, were 1 and 2 on their list over plant based foods

In terms of just crops, 21 selected crops accounted for roughly 72 percent of total conventional pesticide use in 2008

In terms of % of total pounds of active ingredient applied, corn and soybeans were responsible for just over 60% between them. Potatoes, cotton and wheat (in that order) followed after corn and soybeans

 

Fibre Crops With The Most Pesticide Use

From the above %’s, conventional cotton appears to be the fibre crop (when separated from food crops) that uses the most pesticide in the US

 

Foods That Contribute To The Most Pesticide Input Waste

Specifically in the US, the eventual waste of fruit, feed grains and oilseeds, and vegetables are responsible for the most wasted agricultural pesticide input at the farm level.

 

Foods & Crops With The Most Fertilizer Use

In California, four crops are responsible for just over 50% of the average nitrogen fertilizer use, when taking into account the average harvested acreage. Those crops are cotton, almond, wheat and rice

Worldwide, bananas by far have the highest fertilizer application rates in kg per hectare (and taking into account nitrogen, phosphate and potash fertilizers)

Also worldwide, when looking at different types of arable and permanent crops, as a % of total fertilizer use, cereals are responsible for 64% of total use. However, vegetables have some of the highest application rates in kg per hectare

 

Fibre Crops With The Most Fertilizer Use

In California, conventional cotton is the fibre that tops the list – when measuring average-nitrogen-(fertilizer)use estimates for foods and crops by the average harvested acreage.

 

Foods That Contribute To The Most Fertilizer Input Waste

Specifically in the US, the eventual waste of feed grains and oilseeds and hay were responsible for the most wasted nitrogen, potash and phosphorus fertilizer.

 

Ways To Measure Pesticide & Fertilizer Use

Pesticide and fertilizer use can be measured in terms of the total % or tonnage of pesticide/fertilizer product a crop uses. In this instance, crops that take up more total land area may be closer to the top the rankings

But, application rates can also be measured by calculating how much pesticide/fertilizer product a crop uses per square area.

Some crops have higher application rates per square area of land than crops that use up a higher % of overall pesticide/fertilizer product

It’s worth noting that pesticide and fertilizer use can be measured in a specific geographic area – in a particular State/Province, on a country level, or even on a worldwide level.

It can also be measured by the specific type of pesticide or fertilizer being used (e.g. the brand or type of pesticide, or whether it’s nitrogen, potash or phosphorus fertilizer). For example, some reports indicate that some cotton crops use some of the most hazardous types of pesticides (pesticides include insecticides, herbicides, fungicides and rodenticides, and there’s pesticides like glyphosate that are a type of herbicide.)

It’s also important to specify that synthetic pesticides and fertilizers (which we are talking about in this guide), are different to natural pesticides and fertilizers. 

Different farms and agricultural producers will also have different usage rates and farming procedures. Cocoa might be one example of this – with most of the growing being done by smallholder farmers, who may on average use less synthetic fertilizers and pesticides 

As a result of the above points, each it’s important to look at what exactly is being measured, and how exactly it’s being measured. There’s a range of variables and factors in each individual assessment.

Additionally, the amount of pesticide used during production may not correlate to the amount of pesticide residue on the final food product.

 

Foods With The Most Pesticide Residue (At The Consumer Level)

Various sources indicated that animal products like animal meat, and dairy like milk, cheese and butter had the most pesticide residue (more than any plant based food), but also other chemicals and additives like hormones.

Of the plant based foods, strawberries has the highest pesticide residue dosage levels, and raspberries has slightly more different pesticide related chemicals on them compared to strawberries.

Other plant based foods were found to have some notable assessment finding too

What is interesting to note is that pesticide can infiltrate through the skin of food, and can absorb into foods (especially meat), so practices like peeling and washing food before eating may not have much effect in some instances.

 

Measuring Pesticide Residue On Food

Specifically with measurements for pesticide residue on food – the pesticide dosage level, how many different types of pesticide chemicals, whether specific potent pesticides are present, and the % of total goods that are contaminated above what is determined to be a safe level for human exposure or consumption (by a specific testing body), can all be measured

Ultimately though, here’s many measurables and variables that can be included in pesticide residue assessments

We’ve gone into more depth in the guide below

 

What Is The Real Risk Of Pesticide Residue On Food?

This is something which a qualified health professional should be consulted about. We can only give general information on the research we analyzed.

What we found was that different sources indicated different things.

Some sources indicated that humans are currently not being exposed to pesticide residue at high enough levels to be at any significant risk (farm workers exposed to pesticides are said to be at far greater risk).

Other sources indicated that whether or not pesticide residue was a risk to human health depended upon the type of pesticide chemical, the amount of it that was present as residue, whether the person was a more ‘at risk’ group (such as pregnant women, or young children and infants), and other relevant factors.

Whilst some studies suggest organic foods could might lead to lower rates of certain health side effects, there wasn’t a definitive finding on this.

The nbcnews.com, ewp.org, npic.orst.edu, who.int and prevention.com resources can be read for more of a breakdown

 

All Results Can Change Year To Year

The results for the foods and crops that use the most pesticides and fertilizer, and also that contain the most pesticide residue, can change each year as new data comes out and is analyzed, foods are independently re-tested, and lists are updated.

The results can also obviously change between geographic locations, and depending on what is being measured, and how things are being measured.

 

Foods & Crops That Use The Most Pesticides

In the US, livestock production is responsible for close to 40% of all applied pesticides – part of this is to do with animal feed crops grown for livestock

One source indicates that in the US, animal meats like beef, pork and poultry, as well as animal products like milk cheese and butter top the list. But, strawberries contain the most heavy doses, and raspberries might contain the most total types of pesticides.

In terms of crops alone in the US, corn and soybeans together make up a significant % (just over 60%) of the total pounds of active ingredient applied

It’s worth noting that we currently haven’t presented any worldwide pesticide application data

 

All Foods

In the United States, livestock production is responsible for 37 percent of all applied pesticides (smithsonianmag.com)

 

[Further on pesticides used for livestock:]

[Livestock like cattle can be treated with pesticides to prevent infestation or disease]

[it’s estimated that] … 167 million pounds of pesticides are used each year just to grow food for animals in the United States.

– medium.com

 

[A prevention.com article originally published in 2011 outlines a list of 12 food groups that are the most commonly and highly contaminated foods with pesticides and chemicals, even after washing and peeling. The research used to compile this list is from extensive independent tests run by the FDA and the USDA from more than 100,000 samples of food]

[They mention that] Strawberries are the heaviest pesticide dosed crop in America … On average, 300 pounds of pesticides are applied to every acre of strawberries (compared to an average of 25 pounds per acre for other foods)

[Raspberries tested positive for 39 different chemicals – more than strawberries]

– prevention.com

 

Crops Only

In 2008, 21 selected crops accounted for roughly 72 percent of total conventional pesticide … use in U.S. agriculture

The following was the pesticide use by crop, as a percent of total pounds of active ingredient applied:

Corn – 39.5%

Soybeans – 21.7%

Potatoes – 10.2%

Cotton – 7.3%

[In order after cotton – wheat, sorghum, oranges, other (lettuce, pears, sweet corn, barley, peaches, grapefruit, pecans, and lemons), Peanuts, Tomatoes, Grapes, Rice, Apples, and Sugar Cane rounded out the other crops]

– ers.usda.gov

Read the full ers.usda.gov resource for the full numbers and list

 

Which Fibres Use The Most Pesticides

From the above figures, when looking specifically at fibre crops (and not food crops), cotton uses the most pesticide at 7.3% of the total pounds of active ingredient applied.

 

Types Of Wasted Food That Lead To The Most Pesticide Waste

Specifically in the US, the eventual waste of fruit, feed grains and oilseeds, and vegetables are responsible for the most wasted agricultural pesticide input at the farm level.

 

Foods & Crops That Use The Most Fertilizers

Fertilizer use below has been assessed on both the California (US) level, and worldwide

In California, four crops are responsible for just over 50% of the average nitrogen fertilizer use, when taking into account the average harvested acreage. Those crops are cotton, almond, wheat and rice

Worldwide, bananas by far have the highest fertilizer application rates in kg per hectare (and taking into account nitrogen, phosphate and potash fertilizers)

Also worldwide, when looking at different types of arable and permanent crops, as a % of total fertilizer use, cereals are responsible for 64% of total use. However, vegetables have some of the highest application rates in kg per hectare

 

In California

In California … Of the 345,900 tons of nitrogen fertilizer accounted for in the application rates of the 33 commodities considered in [a particular study], approximately 34% is applied to perennials, 27% to vegetables and 42% to field crops.

… [four commodities – cotton, almond, wheat, and rice – account for 51% of the total nitrogen fertilizer use]

In California, the average-nitrogen-use estimates for foods and crops by the average harvested acreage for 2002 to 2007 (as a relative proportion of the overall nitrogen fertilizer used) were:

Cotton – 16%

Almond  – 15%

Wheat – 10%

Rice – 10%

Processed Tomatoes – 7%

Lettuce – 6%

[In order after lettuce, the remaining commodities are grapes, walnut, stone fruit, oranges, broccoli, carrots, pistachio, onions, potato, avocado, lemons, cauliflower, celery, strawberry, sweet corn, melons, pepper, fresh market tomatoes, and dry beans]

– calag.ucanr.edu

There’s also data on the crop area and pounds of nitrogen used per acre of these and other crops from 2005 in a table in this resource.

 

Worldwide

Worldwide, the crops with the highest fertilizer application rates in kg per hectare (of nitrogen, phosphate and potash) are:

1. Banana – 479 (kgs per hectare)

Sugar beet – 254 kg/ha

Citrus – 252 kg/ha

Vegetables – 242 kg/ha

Potato – 243 kg/ha

Oil-palm – 242 kg/ha

Sweet potato – 225 kg/ha

Tobacco – 225 kg/ha

Tea – 225 kg/ha

10. Sugar cane – 202 kg/ha

– fao.org

 

And, worldwide, fertilizer use on the different types of arable and permanent crops, as a % of total fertilizer use [with application rate in kg per hectare also included in brackets]:

Cereals – 64% (of total fertilizer use), and a 102 kg per hectare (fertilizer application rate)

Oilseeds – 9.2%, and 85kg/ha

Vegetables – 4.9%, and 242kg/ha

Sugar beet/cane – 4.7%, and 216kg/ha

Roots/tubers – 4.5%, and 212kg/ha

Fibres – 4.4%, and 144kg/ha

Fruits – 3.6%, and 163kg/ha

Tobacco, beverages – 2.0%, and 153kg/ha

Pulses – 1.9%, and 39kg/ha

– fao.org

 

… fertilizers [are applied] to hay and pasture fields … to substantially increase … yields (u.osu.edu)

 

Which Fibres Use The Most Fertilizer

Cotton used the most fertilizer of any fibre crop by a significant amount.

 

From the above calag.ucanr.edu numbers, cotton uses the highest % of fertilizer of any crop in California.

 

On a worldwide level, fao.org provides the % of fertilizer use for fibres, but not for cotton specifically.

 

Foods That Waste The Most Fertilizer During Production

Specifically in the US, the eventual waste of feed grains and oilseeds and hay were responsible for the most wasted nitrogen, potash and phosphorus fertilizer.

 

Foods With The Most Pesticide Residue 

According to one source, animal products like meat, poultry and dairy are the major source of pesticide residue in western diets.

The average amount of pesticide residue in the diet might depend on the specific foods that make up the entire composition of the diet – less westernized diets might contain a lower % of animal products.

Another source suggests that in the US, animal products again – meat firstly, and dairy like milk, cheese and butter second – contain the most pesticide contamination, and contain more than plant based foods. Meat can also contain other chemicals and additives like hormones.

Strawberries, raspberries and cherries in the US can rank near the top of pesticide residue contamination for plant based foods.

 

From earthsave.org:

Meat, poultry and dairy products contain the major source of pesticide residues in the western diet

95% of human exposure to the potent carcinogen dioxin comes from consuming meat, poultry and dairy

 

[A prevention.com article originally published in 2011 outlines a list of 12 food groups that are the most commonly and highly contaminated foods with pesticides and chemicals, even after washing and peeling. The research used to compile this list is from extensive independent tests run by the FDA and the USDA from more than 100,000 samples of food. Those food groups are:]

[in order from 1 to 12 – 1. Beef, pork and poultry, 2. Milk, cheese and butter, 3. Strawberries, raspberries and cherries, 4. Apples and pears, 5. Tomatoes, 6. Potatoes, 7. Spinach and other greens, 8. Coffee, 9. Peaches and nectarines, 10. Grapes, 11. Celery, and 12. Red and green bell peppers]

[Beef, pork and poultry are contaminated with higher level/doses of pesticide than any plant food, and accumulate other chemicals too]

[Milk, cheese and butter follow these animal meats]

[In third are strawberries, raspberries and cherries. Strawberries are the heaviest dosed crop in America, and] 90% of strawberries tested register pesticide contamination above safe levels. [Raspberries tested positive for 39 different chemicals – more than strawberries]

… [tests also found] spinach to be the vegetable most frequently contaminated with the most potent pesticides used on food

[prevention.com provides a detailed description of each food type in their resource, so, read the resource for more information]

– prevention.com

 

Pesticide Residue On Meat & Animal Products

Taking a closer look at meat and animal products, animal meat can contain pesticide residue, (and other chemicals or substances like antibiotics, drugs, and hormones.

Additionally, animal feed crops (used to feed livestock) can contain higher levels of pesticides compared to edible crops grown for direct human consumption.

 

Pesticide residues are found in meat and animal byproducts … [and] Veterinary drugs and heavy metals can also be found in meat

For glyphosate, the most commonly used pesticide in the world, residues allowed in animal feed can be more than 100 times that allowed on grains consumed directly by humans, and the amount of glyphosate allowed in red meat is more than 20 times that for most plant crops.

– medium.com

 

Pesticide Residue On Fruits, Vegetables & Plant Based Foods

EWG updates their list of the cleanest and dirtiest fresh produce in the United States each year.

This year (2021), they analysed the latest test data by the federal Department of Agriculture, and also commissioned their own EWG tests.

The top 12 foods (in order) that were ‘contaminated with more pesticides than other crops’ were [1. Strawberries, 2. Spinach, 3. Kale, collard and mustard greens, 4. Nectarines, 5. Apples, 6. Grapes, 7. Cherries, 8. Peaches, 9. Pears, 10. Bell and hot peppers, 11. Celery, 12. Tomatoes]

The 15 foods (in order) that  ‘had the lowest amounts of pesticide residues’ were [1. Avocados, 2. Sweetcorn, 3. Pineapple, 4. Onions, 5. Papaya, 6. Sweet peas (frozen), 7. Eggplant, 8. Asparagus, 9. Broccoli, 10. Cabbage, 11. Kiwi, 12. Cauliflower, 13. Mushrooms, 14. Honeydew melon, 15. Cantaloupes]

[ewp.org mentions that] ‘glyphosate, or Roundup – the most heavily used pesticide in the U.S.’ [is not analysed for on some crop samples, so, there can be limitations in some pesticide residue analysis’]

You can read more about the methodology and a detailed breakdown of the data in the ewg.org resource 

 

These ewg.org results have some similarities to the 2011 prevention.com results we outlined above

 

How Pesticide Residue On Food Can Be Measured & Tested

Different things that can be measured are:

– Amount of pesticide detected on food (the dosage amount, or dosage levels)

– The average % of a specific food that is contaminated e.g. over 50% of a specific food tested might test positive to contamination over a certain level of contamination deemed ‘safe’

– Average number of different pesticide types detected on food, or the maximum number of different pesticide types detected on food. Essentially, this is measuring the number of different types of pesticide chemicals found on the foods

– Test for specific types of pesticides e.g. a test might try to detect glyphosate (a herbicide). These types of tests may also try to identify the foods with the most potent or harmful types of pesticides as well (as opposed to testing just for pesticide dosages, or the number of different pesticide types). Something ewp.org mentions is that the USDA also does not test for some specific types of pesticides, such as glyphosate, or Roundup (at least in one their latest updates of data and testing)

– nbcnews.com also mentions how different risk factors and pillars can be tested with, or tested for

– prevention.com mentions how the FDA and USDA might test for ‘the most commonly and highly contaminated foods with pesticides and chemicals, even after washing and peeling’. They are ‘independent tests run by the FDA and the USDA from more than 100,000 samples of food’. One measurable they may look for is ‘pesticide contamination above safe levels [for humans to be ingesting]’.

– ewg.org describes their methodology for testing and analysis in depth in their resource, and even outlines their 6 measurables. So, this resource is worth reading

 

It’s worth noting that pesticide testing and measuring, is different to regulation of pesticides.

The US EPA and other agencies regulate pesticide residue on food according to npic.orst.edu

On an international level, bodies like WHO and FAO do work to develop standards, voluntary framework, and other information on the risk of pesticides and pesticide residue

 

How Much Of A Risk Is Pesticide Residue?

There could obviously be many variables and factors to this answer, and only a professional (which we are not) is qualified to give expert advice.

Some sources indicate pesticide residue may not be a significant safety concern – partly because the levels that human consume residue in may not be high enough.

Certain groups of people according to those sources, such as pregnant women, could be at more risk of certain issues, than other groups of people

Other sources indicate that the chemical pesticides detected in their studies are known to cause certain health conditions, and developmental problems in children.

Some pesticides are different to others too, and therefore, might have different risk and toxicity profiles – one example is a neurotoxin chemical, that can cause brain damage specifically.

The type of pesticide, the person exposed to the pesticide, and the amount of pesticide they are exposed to or that they consume, might all come into play.

 

nbcnews.com references another source and indicates that  ‘[certain foods identified as having more pesticide residue on them] didn’t pose a real threat, and substituting the so-called worst ones for organic versions didn’t result in any appreciable reduction in risk … The actual risk is tiny’

There’s also different ‘pillars of risk’ to consider with pesticide residue found on food, such as the type and amount of substance getting onto the food, and how much humans are ingesting.

They mention how pesticide studies are questionable in some ways, such as showing harm through ‘correlations rather than causation’, just as on example

They also mention that some groups of people may potentially be exposed to more risk in some ways than other groups of people.

 

prevention.com outlines a range of health conditions that chemical pesticides may cause, and also identifies that they can cause developmental problems in children.

They also mention how some pesticides have specific chemicals that might cause specific damage to certain parts of the body, such as neurotoxin chemicals impacting the brain.

They also mention how the level of safety regulation on pesticide use in a country can matter (what pesticides can be used, and how), but also mention that the import and export of foods can mean contaminated foods may be able to be traded from one country to another.

 

who.int mentions that pesticides are ‘potentially toxic to humans’ but it can depend on ‘the quantity and ways in which a person is exposed’

They also mention that those who are at the greatest risk to exposure are those ‘who come into contact with them at work, in their home or garden’

The toxicity of a pesticide can depend on ‘it’s function and other factors’, and ‘Each pesticide has different properties and toxicological effects’

Overall, the general population who are exposed to pesticides through food and water might be exposed to pesticides are far lower levels than agricultural workers.

Read the who.int resource for more in depth information on the potential risk of pesticides and pesticide residue for humans

 

ewg.org mentions that ‘Nearly 70 percent of the non-organic fresh produce sold in the U.S. contains residues of potentially harmful chemical pesticides’. 

But they also say that ‘… it is unclear whether the positive effects associated with organic foods are directly and exclusively caused by lower pesticide exposures’

They indicate that longer term trials may be needed to compare organic foods to non organic foods in terms of impact of pesticides on humans.

They also mention that Imazalil is a specific type of fungicide that ‘can change hormone levels and is classified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a likely human carcinogen’

Additionally, they identify some other individual pesticides and their potential health risk for humans.

 

The Risk Of Not Consuming Enough Of The Right Foods

What people may not consider is that by worrying about pesticide residue, they may be also missing out on nutrition from certain food groups.

Overall, it might be better to eat conventional fruits and vegetables rather than worrying about whether or not they have pesticide residue on them.

 

From nbcnews.com: ‘The health benefits of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables outweigh the risks of pesticide exposure. Eating conventionally grown produce is far better than skipping fruits and vegetables’

 

Are There Some Things That Might Help Manage Pesticide Residue Risk?

These aren’t professional recommendation, or any form of professional advice.

But, some general and theoretical ways pesticide residue risk might be managed might include:

– Choosing foods and food groups with low exposure to pesticide residue in a country, according to pesticide residue ‘most dirty’ lists

– Grow foods synthetic pesticide free on a personal property where possible

– Speak to local farmers at farmer’s markets who you are sure don’t use synthetic or harmful pesticides, and you can buy pesticide free food from the source locally

– Wash, scrub and peel foods before consuming (although sometimes pesticide chemicals infiltrate the skin, or the food absorbs the pesticide, and washing, scrubbing and peeling does nothing to remove the pesticide chemicals)

– Support regulations by country that enforce the safe use of pesticides (although ewg.org goes into depth about how there might be inadequacies in current US regulations relating to safe use of pesticides)

– Support farming practices that eliminate the use of, or reduces the use of problem pesticides

Note though that organic farming can differ country to country (depending on standards and regulations, or certifications inp place), and as nbcnews.com mentions, organic farming still uses pesticides, but they are usually naturally derived and not synthetic. 

Using one example from nbcnews.com, ingesting certain levels of a derivative of copper used in a fungicide used in organic farming could be toxic, but may it may be no real concern for the levels humans are ingesting them in when it comes to pesticide residue 

Naturally derived pesticides might have their own safety concerns, or have their own environmental concerns, as outlined by fashionhedge.com and qz.com.

Certain farming practices like using protective insects for pest control (and integrated pest management), or, using a greenhouse setup with hydroponic technology can help reduce synthetic pesticide use in some instances

 

Decreasing The Pesticide & Fertilizer Footprints In The Foods & Fibres People Eat & Wear

Theoretically, an individual could decrease the synthetic pesticide or fertilizer footprint in the foods they eat and fibres they wear and use.

This is only theory/general information though, and not a recommendation or professional advice.

Also consider that every decision usually has a tradeoff, and some decisions don’t have a practical alternative.

 

Pesticides

– Consider that in the US, animal products (meat and dairy, but also animal feed), as well as corn, soybeans, potatoes, conventional cotton and wheat may have higher pesticide footprints

– Consider the impact of wasting fresh foods like fruit and vegetables on pesticide waste as an agricultural input

 

Fertilizer

– In California, consider that cotton, almond, wheat and rice may have higher average fertilizer use footprints

– Worldwide, consider that bananas may have some of the highest fertilizer application rate footprints

– Worldwide, consider that cereals as a crop types may have some of the highest total fertilizer use footprints, and vegetables some of the highest fertilizer application rate footprints

– Consider the impact of wasting animal products (that use feed grain, oils seeds and hay) on fertilizer waste as an agricultural input

 

Other Notes

Above in this guide we’ve looked at the foods and crops that use the most pesticides and fertilizers

But, what could be helpful beyond this data, is understanding the specific countries, and specific agricultural producers (or companies) that use the most chemicals. It might only be a handful that use the most

 

Sources

1. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/travel/is-the-livestock-industry-destroying-the-planet-11308007/

2. https://www.ers.usda.gov/webdocs/publications/43854/46734_eib124.pdf

3. https://slate.com/technology/2009/11/which-fruits-vegetables-and-other-crops-have-the-smallest-environmental-footprints.html

4. Rosenstock T, Liptzin D, Six J, Tomich T. 2013. Nitrogen fertilizer use in California: Assessing the data, trends and a way forward. Calif Agr 67(1):68-79. – http://calag.ucanr.edu/Archive/?article=ca.E.v067n01p68

5. http://www.fao.org/tempref/docrep/fao/009/a0787e/A0787E00.pdf

6. Aktar, Md Wasim et al. “Impact of pesticides use in agriculture: their benefits and hazards” Interdisciplinary toxicology vol. 2,1 (2009): 1-12. – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2984095/

7. https://www.ewg.org/foodnews/summary.php

8. https://u.osu.edu/beef/2016/04/27/fertilizing-forages-using-nutrients-wisely/

9. https://medium.com/center-for-biological-diversity/does-meat-contain-pesticides-c587f6b252e7

10. http://www.earthsave.org/environment.htm

11. Conrad, Z., Niles, M.T., Neher, D.A., Roy, E.D., Tichenor, N.E. and Jahns, L., 2018. Relationship between food waste, diet quality, and environmental sustainability. PloS one13(4), p.e0195405. – https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0195405 

12. https://fashionhedge.com/2015/03/12/the-truth-about-organic-cotton/ 

13. https://www.nbcnews.com/better/health/produce-side-pesticides-what-nutritionist-wants-you-know-about-ewg-ncna864156

14. https://www.prevention.com/food-nutrition/healthy-eating/a20457403/12-commonly-contaminated-foods/

15. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/pesticide-residues-in-food

16. http://npic.orst.edu/health/foodprac.html

Leave a Comment