Pros & Cons Of Water Desalination & Desalination Plants

Water is a valuable resource we use for almost everything we do in society, and is scarce in some regions of the world

Desalination is a technology that some cities across the world have implemented to help address some of their fresh water related issues.

In the guide below, we outline some of the potential pros and cons of desalination technology.

 

Summary – Pros & Cons Of Water Desalination

Firstly, What Is Water Desalination?

In this guide, we outline what desalination is, the different technology & processes/methods used, along with other important aspects of desalination.

 

Potential Pros

Already Used Widely Around The World

Some Cities Get A Majority Of Their Water Supply From Desalination

Can Make Use Of The Biggest Water Source In The World (about 96.5% of the water on Earth’s surface is found in the ocean)

Water Generation Capacity Might Be Considered Reasonable

Can Make Use Of Brackish Water & Other Types Of Water 

Can Be Used In Both Coastal Areas, Or Inland

Some Types Of Desalination Facilities Can Get To The Operation Stage Quickly

Removes Salt From Water, But Can Also Remove Water Contaminants

Can Prevent Cross Contamination Between Brackish Water Sources & Non Contaminated Sources

Is Not Dependent On Rainfall

Is Independent Of The Climate, & Natural Events Like Droughts

Can Help Diversify A City’s Water Supply Sources

May Help Address Water Issues Like Water Stress, Water Scarcity, Water Shortages, & Others

May Help Address Issues Related To A Growing Demand For Water In The Future

May Give Some Communities More Water Independence

Can Reliably & Consistently Generate Water, & Is Not Unpredictable Or Variable Like Some Other Water Sources

Can Run At Partial Capacity (Is Flexible) 

Surplus Water Can Be Used In Times Of Natural Water Deficits

May Reduce Energy Usage Of A Water Supply

May Reduce Water Diversions

May Be Useful For Certain Cities, Or Certain Regions

Isolated Or Rural Communities Can Run Desalination

There May Be Several Ways To Dispose Of Waste In A More Eco Friendly Way

The Salt ‘Brine’ By-Product Of Desalination Has Potential To Re-Used

Small Scale Desalination Equipment For Individuals Is Available, Affordable & Accessible

May Have Economic & Social Benefits

New Developments, Innovations and Business Models Are Currently Being Worked On, Which May Help Improve The Technology

 

Potential Cons

Cost Of Construction New Plants Can Be Expensive

Operational Costs Can Also Be High

Energy Intensity Of Plants While In Operation Might Cause Issues In Several Ways

Price Of Water From Desalination Plants May Be Expensive For Consumers

Can Be Dependent On An Energy Supply

Plants Can Contribute To Air Pollution & Carbon Emissions

Large Scale Desalination In Particular Requires Huge Power Input

R&D Costs May Be A Barrier In Some Ways

Time Between Planning, Funding Approval, Construction and Operation Can Be Years

Some Argue That Other Water Sources & Water Strategies May Be Better In Some Instances

Desalination Produces A Salt ‘Brine’ Waste By-Product, Which Can Be Damaging & Hazardous

Potential To Contaminate Other Water Sources & The Water Supply

The Final Water Product From Desalination Plants Can Be Corrosive

Good Minerals Might Be Stripped From The Water In The Desalination Process

Water Input vs Output Can Be Poor

Large Desalination Plants Can Negatively Impact The Ocean & Biodiversity

May Sometimes Only Produce Enough Water To Meet A Certain % Of Drinking Water Supply

Some People Think Of Desalination As A ‘Silver Bullet’ Solution To Some Water Supply Issues

Some Water Experts May Not Think That Desalination Is Not A Primary Long Term Solution

Some Individual Cities Have Experienced Problems With Implementing Desalination

 

Potential Future Of Desalination

Water desalination is currently used in many locations around the world

Having said that, water desalination may need to become more affordable and economically feasible in the future, reduce it’s energy intensity, and increase it’s water generation capacity.

It might also help if it can use renewable clean energy like solar and wind, over coal and other fossil fuels. Some cities already do this, but some don’t.

Finding ways to consistently re-use the brine and other waste by-products may also help, or being able to more effectively manage them.

There may be some potential for small scale desalination in the future on an individual and small community level

Other options other than desalination like importing and transporting water between boundaries, and better managing water withdrawals and demand, may be cheaper options in the short term.

Water recycling and waste water re-use may have bigger potential in the long term according to some reports.

Desalination may be one piece of the answer for future fresh water supply – it may be a supplementary or primary option heading into the future.

Each city, region and geographic area will have to assess individually if desalination is right option for them – in the short, medium and long term

 

*A Note

The pros and cons in this guide are general pros and cons only.

The different variables to different desalination plant setups will ultimately impact the final list of pros and cons of individual desalination setups.

 

Potential Pros Of Water Desalination & Desalination Plants

A more detailed list of the pros:

Already Used Widely Around The World

Desalination is already used widely by countries and cities around the world to address issues like water stress and water scarcity.

 

wikipedia.org indicates there’s 21,000 desalination plants currently in operation around the world, whilst twdb.texas.gov indicates that ‘[Based on 2017 numbers, there’s about … 18,426 desalination facilities located in 150 countries worldwide’

 

Some Cities Get A Majority Of Their Water Supply From Desalination

Perth in Western Australia may be one example, with some reports indicating they get around 50% of their total supply from desalination.

 

Can Make Use Of The Biggest Water Source In The World – The Ocean

Salt water can be used by desalination plants, and salt water in the ocean makes up roughly 96% to 97% of water on Earth.

Comparatively, the amount of available fresh water is much smaller, and is unequally distributed geographically all over the world.

Some places have a lot of fresh water, while some places have little or none.

 

Water Generation Capacity Might Be Considered Reasonable

Although some criticize desalination plants for not generating enough water to meet all potable and non potable water demand, desalination plants around the world are still capable of producing a reasonable amount of water.

Some data that illustrates this includes:

 

– Worldwide

[Worldwide, desalination facilities have a] total capacity of about 22.9 billion US gallons [based on 2017 numbers] (twdb.texas.gov)

 

 – Tampa Bay, United States

The Tampa Bay Seawater Desalination facility, located in Florida, provides up to 25 million gallons of drinking water per day to the region (vittana.org)

 

– Adelaide, Australia

A single desalination plant like the one in Adelaide, Australia can supply 300 megalitres per day, or 100 gigalitres per annum, or 50% of a city’s drinking water needs (wikipedia.org)

 

– *Variables In Water Generation Capacity

But, the water generation capacity of different plants depends on several variables.

 

Can Make Use Of Brackish Water & Other Types Of Water

In addition to ocean salt water, desalination plants can use brackish water, and other types of water that aren’t immediately drinkable or usable.

Saline water is another example.

 

Can Be Used In Both Coastal Areas, Or Inland

Coastal desalination plants usually treat sea water.

Inland desalination plants can be used to make use of brackish water and other inland water types from different water sources.

 

Roughly one quarter of all water desalination demand is for inland brackish water desalination technology, and there’s a number of uses for inland desalination (veoliawatertechnologies.co.za).

 

One inland desalination option is containerized desalination … (fluencecorp.com)

 

Some Types Of Desalination Facilities Can Get To The Operation Stage Quickly

One inland desalination option is containerized desalination that can be up and running within 2 months (fluencecorp.com)

 

Removes Salt From Water, But Can Also Remove Water Contaminants

Desalination can remove salt from water, but also other things

For example, it can remove the contaminants from water.

 

[This means it can] treat industrial effluent as well (fluencecorp.com)

 

Can Prevent Cross Contamination Between Brackish Water Sources & Non Contaminated Sources

Desalination facilities have the ability to capture and treat brackish water, and this might prevent cross contamination of nearby non contaminated water sources.

 

[This has been the case in Texas] (fluencecorp.com)

 

Is Not Dependent On Rainfall

Unlike surface water sources and underground aquifers, desalination isn’t dependent on rainfall to provide water for the water supply.

It uses salt water and other types of water instead.

 

Is Independent Of The Climate, & Natural Events Like Droughts

Other water sources like surface water and ground water sources can be impacted by the climate in various ways – such as by hot and dry climates, by evaporation, by natural events like droughts, and so on.

Desalination isn’t impacted by these climate variables.

Droughts in particular can have a severe impact on some regions, and in the case of places like Cape Town, can lead to water shortages.

Desalination is largely unaffected by droughts and natural events.

So, drought prone places might benefit from desalination technology.

 

Can Help Diversify A City’s Water Supply Sources

Some cities may only rely on one water source for the majority of their water supply, such as a dam (which is what Perth in Western Australia used to do).

However, desalination can provide an additional water source for a city’s water supply, and this helps diversify their water sources (which is what Perth eventually did, in addition to sourcing from groundwater and water recycling too)

A region is more water diverse when more than one water source can be used to produce freshwater and drinking water for that region.

This means there isn’t a single point of failure for providing fresh water to that region.

Theoretically, this reduces water risk and increases water security for a city.

 

May Help Address Water Issues Like Water Stress, Water Scarcity, Water Shortages, & Others

Water stress, water scarcity and water shortages are water issues related to not having enough water supply to met demand.

There’s a number of countries around the world that are currently experiencing water stress or water scarcity, and there may be more in the future.

Desalination may help address these issues by augmenting and increasing water supply.

There’s examples of places like with Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Eritrea, and Qatar using desalination to augment their water supplies

 

May Help Address Issues Related To A Growing Demand For Water In The Future

Some industries like agriculture and in particular energy generation are expected to demand more energy in the future.

A growing population, a growing middle class (in some countries) and a growing demand for water intensive products like meat and fossil fuels, may lead to increased water demand too. 

Desalination could help make more water available for this increased demand.

 

May Give Some Communities More Water Independence

Some cities currently rely on transboundary transfers and trading for water from other cities and regions.

Desalination sourced from internal water sources may give these cities more control over their own internal water supplies, as opposed to having to rely on water externally. 

 

Can Reliably & Consistently Generate Water, & Is Not Unpredictable Or Variable Like Some Other Water Sources

As long as they have access to energy and a water source, desalination plants can reliably and consistently generate a certain amount of water every year.

Other water sources, such as surface water sources for example, may rely on rainfall for replenishment, which can be variable and unpredictable year to year.

More reliable water generation can be easier to manage and plan around.

 

Can Run At Partial Capacity (Is Flexible) 

A desalination facility doesn’t always have to run at full capacity – it can run at partial capacity too.

For example, it might be able to run at 10% of full capacity.

Not only does this give desalination extra flexibility, but it gives the option to scale capacity up and down when other water sources are being used more, or used less.

 

Surplus Water Can Be Used In Times Of Natural Water Deficits

Related to the above point, a desalination plant can go into water surplus if it’s still operating whilst other water sources are being used.

This surplus water can be used when natural water supply levels start depleting.

 

May Reduce Energy Usage Of A Water Supply

Current water infrastructure involves the use of pumps and other water equipment that uses energy to move and treat water (especially from some ground water sources).

There’s a chance in some areas desalination plants may cause a net decrease in the total amount of water related energy used compared to current water infrastructure.

Although, some desalination plants can be very energy intensive.

 

May Reduce Water Diversions

In some areas, water has to be diverted from existing sources to a new area.

This has potential ecosystem damage consequences in the original area the water is diverted away from.

A desalination plant can reduce the need to divert water in some instances.

 

May Be Useful For Certain Cities, Or Certain Regions

– May Be Useful For Regions With Dry & Hot Climates

Regions with dry or hot climates may be impacted by certain factors such as high surface temperatures (that impacts evaporation), and low (or variable annual) rainfall levels (that impacts inflows to surface water and percolation to ground water).

Desalination may not be affected by these factors in the same way.

 

– May Be Useful For Regions With Low Or No Internal Natural Fresh Water Resources

Fresh water resources are not distributed evenly geographically throughout the world

Desalination may offer a supply solution for regions with low to no internal fresh water resources.

As long as a region has a local salt water source and an energy supply, they might be able to make use of desalination.

 

– May Be Useful For Regions That Rely On One Main Water Source That Is Depleting

Some countries, with one example being some parts of India, may rely on slow to recharge ground water sources.

Some aquifers don’t show a meaningful change in water renewal levels for around 5 years or so.

Slow renewal rates combined with higher withdrawals can lead to ground water depletion.

Desalination eases the burden on ground water sources by not having to withdraw as much from these slow to recharge water sources.

 

Isolated Or Rural Communities Can Run Desalination

Some water sources aren’t available to isolated or rural communities, but in some instances, desalination might be.

They might also be able to run it on renewable energy like solar if they stick to smaller scales of water production.

 

There May Be Several Ways To Dispose Of Brine In A More Eco Friendly Way

Brine may have several potential environmental effects when discharged, however mixing it with seawater, discharging to areas with strong currents to dissipate it, and evaporating water whilst disposing of salt separately might all be options to better manage brine waste

wired.com discusses these options in more detail

 

The Salt ‘Brine’ By-Product Of Desalination Has Potential To Re-Used

From veoliawatertechnologies.co.za:

Some of the proposed re-uses include de-icing, injection material for deep well drilling, to be mixed with cement, and so on.

Brine disposal can also be cost effective

 

Small Scale Desalination Equipment For Individuals Is Available, Affordable & Accessible

Right now, a small scale desalinator for seawater can be purchased for about $500 in some regions (according to some local product prices)

Some models weigh just 2.5 pounds and produce about two pints of viable water per hour (but it depends on the model)

They are hand-operated, which means they can be used with a life raft, an emergency kit, and meet other needs for coastal populations.

 

May Have Economic & Social Benefits

A more reliable and consistent water source, in addition to helping augment a water supply and address water stress and water scarcity problems, may help provide more water for a local economy.

With water being so critical to how economies and societies work, desalination may have indirect economic and social benefits.

 

New Developments, Innovations and Business Models Are Currently Being Worked On, Which May Help Improve The Technology

The wateronline.com resource in the resources list at the bottom of this guide outlines the various developments, innovations and business models being worked on to improve and develop desalination technology

 

It’s also worth pointing out that ‘Reverse Osmosis’ as a technology/process has already helped make desalination more efficient and produce less brine when desalinating less saline water.

 

Potential Cons Of Water Desalination, & Desalination Plants

Cost Of Construction New Plants Can Be Expensive

There are several factors that can impact the final cost to build a desalination plant (such as capacity, technology used, etc.)

However, they can range from costing tens or hundreds of millions of dollars, up to over a billion dollars.

Desalination facilities are obviously not affordable for all cities and towns at these prices. Low income, and underdeveloped countries are generally priced out of desalination technology

Some argue that the money spent on desalination plants is better spent elsewhere.

 

From wikipedia.org:

… a 2010 report estimated that a new desalination plant in Texas would cost $658 million to achieve 100 million gallons per day of freshwater supplies [and] Even at 2.5 million gallons per day, the plant would cost $32 million to build.

A desalination plant in Adelaide, Australia cost A$1.83 billion to construct

 

Operational Costs Can Also Be High

Desalination plants have operational costs too, and they can be high.

Operations costs can include both capital and energy costs, and energy in particular can make up a large share of running some desalination plants.

Operation costs can be impacted by both the energy source used for electricity generation, and also the price of electricity in the local area.

There are different reports that outline both how many kilowatt hours of energy desalination plants use on average to produce different units of fresh water, and also how much power might cost on some electricity grids when taking into account this electricity consumption and the annual water generation of a particular desalination plant.

The cost of water from desalination may be able to be minimised in the future though if renewable energy develops and becomes cheaper.

The cost of brine disposal and treatment is also an operational cost, and one report indicates that is can be the large cost component of some desalination plants.

Some desalination plants also run on standby mode in some instances, and cost money to run whilst they aren’t actively supply water.

 

Desalination plants can be capital and energy intensive to run, which can lead to high operational costs (energy makes up a significant portion of the the running costs of some plants). In Adelaide for example – annual energy costs for their desalination facility are A$130 million (wikipedia.org).

 

wateronline.com indicates that: ‘… brine disposal or treatment is the largest cost component of brackish and industrial water desalination’

 

Energy Intensity Of Plants While In Operation Might Cause Issues In Several Ways

Some reports indicate that desalination is the most energy intensive water supply option that is currently available (although some ground water pumping can require a lot of energy too).

Some issues caused by high energy consumption might be:

– High energy and electricity consumption leading to higher costs, which leads to higher prices for water

– May create a dependence on energy and electricity consumption

– Potentially more air pollution and also emissions from greater energy consumption 

 

Price Of Water From Desalination Plants May Be Expensive For Consumers

Different water sources cost different amounts to produce, and these costs can be passed on and reflected in the price that the consumer pays.

Various reports indicate that desalination might currently be the most expensive water source.

 

Impact On Water Bills

Regarding Perth’s water bills:

From theconversation.com:

The average Perth household’s water bill has tripled since 2005–06 [up to 2015], even though water consumption per capita has dropped substantially over the past decade.

This adds to cost of living [too]

 

One report indicates that ‘The average household of 4 pays about $4.50 for 100 gallons of daily water. Desalinated water access can be 25% to 75% higher.’

 

Price To Produce Per Gallon

Other reports on the price of desalinated water indicate that:

In Tampa Bay, the cost of desalinated brackish water can be up to $2.60 for every 1,000 gallons of water produced.

Desalinated seawater can cost up to $5.80 per 1,000 gallons of water. 

TheConversation.com outlines ‘the cost of supplying desalinated water varies widely, from $1 to $4 per kL [in Australia].

 

Price To Produce Per Acre Foot

Some reports also indicate that recycled water can be cheaper than water desalination in some instances.

 

Can Be Dependent On An Energy Supply

Some argue that desalination swaps the dependence on rainfall that natural water sources have, for a dependence on energy to provide power to the desalination plant.

The renewal of surface water and ground water sources rely on rainfall, the climate, catchment areas, soil, the hydrologic cycle, and many other natural factors.

Desalination plants rely on a lot of energy for electricity.

 

Plants Can Contribute To Air Pollution & Carbon Emissions

Air pollutants and greenhouse gases can come from both the operation of the desalination plant (especially the more energy and electricity the plant uses), and also during the manufacturing on the plant materials and technology.

Plants that use a lot of fossil fuels like coal in particular may contribute to air pollution and emissions.

Using renewable energy to power desalination plants is an option to address this, but renewable energy can be variable in it’s power availability, and can have other technical or practical limitations for desalination plants.

Some plants do currently use renewable energy though.

Air pollution and carbon capture devices and technology at power plants may also help minimise pollution and emissions.

 

Regarding Perth’s carbon emissions:

Western Australian carbon emissions per capita are now the highest in Australia and among the highest in the developed world [and, desalination plants only add to this] (theconversation.com)

 

Large Scale Desalination In Particular Requires Huge Power Input

Large scale desalination plants need a lot of power

In some instances, some plants may have no choice but to use diesel as a fuel.

Diesel may contribute to even more emissions and pollutants from it’s combustion than other energy sources.

 

R&D Costs May Be A Barrier In Some Ways

Research and development costs may be expensive in some instances

This may present some challenges in generating investment and financing, and may lead to slower uptake and development/improvement of the technology in some instances 

Further R&D, and improvements to desalination technology can be expensive to finance.

 

Time Between Planning, Funding Approval, Construction and Operation Can Be Years

The potentially long lead times may not be feasible in places where water is needed immediately to address more urgent water supply issues.

 

For example, the Adelaide, Australia plant took from 2008 to 2013 to go from initial funding to the plant fully opening (wikipedia.org)

 

Some Argue That Other Water Sources & Water Strategies May Be More Cost Effective & Better In Some Instances

For example, some argue that the following water sources & water strategies may have cost benefits or other advantages over desalination:

– Better management of water withdrawals

– Implementing better water pricing strategies

– Transboundary water transfers with other States/provinces (may be cheaper)

– Wastewater recycling (may have better long term potential)

 

Overall, there may be better and more sustainable water management solutions and strategies than desalination to try first for some cities, such as stopping the overconsumption and waste or loss water unnecessarily, responsibly & sustainably managing fresh water withdrawals compared to water supply capacity, addressing corruption or incompetency with water management institutions, and generally managing water supplies better and properly valuing water as a resource. 

Desalination can be one of the most expensive sources of fresh water when taking into consideration building costs, energy costs, and so on.

It’s certainly more expensive than sustainably managing water demand and withdrawals in the first instance.

Which water sources and water strategies are suitable for different cities and towns though depend on different individual local conditions, variables and factors though

Future development in fresh water technology and strategy may also play a role.

 

Desalination Produces A Salt ‘Brine’ Waste By-Product, Which Can Be Hazardous Or Damaging 

Desalination produces a salt removed from saltwater, called brine, which is a waste by-product made from concentrated salt water

It can be naturally corrosive, and has potential to cause harm (or be hazardous) to wildlife, vegetation, the environment, and sometimes individuals if not treated and disposed of properly, or re-used.

wired.com also mentions in addition to impacting the ecosystem in the ocean, it can impact oxygen levels and spike salt content of the water. They also mention (paraphrased) that even if brine is diluted to manage the issue with hyper salinity, these management techniques don’t remove the heavy metals and chemical toxins 

Additionally, recent estimates indicate more brine is being produced than first thought (also according to wired.com)

So, proper ‘brine’ management is important.

 

Regarding Perth’s desalination discharge:

The marine environments of Perth’s desalination plants are sensitive to the hypersaline discharge that is produced in the purification process (theconversation.com)

 

Potential To Contaminate Other Water Sources & The Water Supply

Desalination plants have the potential to introduce certain chemical, biological, or mineral contaminants into the local water supply and groundwater sources.

To prevent this, the plant needs a waste and discharge treatment process, and proper management.

 

The Final Water Product From Desalination Plants Can Be Corrosive

The pH of the water generated by a desalination plant can be more acidic than regular natural freshwater from other sources, according to some reports.

This water might have potential to corrode pipes and infrastructure if not filtered and treated properly.

 

Good Minerals Might Be Stripped From The Water In The Desalination Process

In the purification process, bad water chemicals such as arsenic, lead, and barium can be removed.

But, good minerals such as magnesium, potassium, and calcium might also be removed, according to some reports.

Water coming from a desalination plant must be treated and monitored properly to ensure it has the right minerals if it’s used as drinking water.

Although, some argue this isn’t a large issue because regular tap water may also have minerals stripped from it when treated too.

 

Water Input vs Output Can Be Poor

Desalination plants need to receive a certain amount of water in order to generate a certain amount of water at the other end of the desalination process.

For a desalination plant that is reliant on reverse osmosis, some reports indicate it will return as little as 5% of the water that is pushed through the system.

The remaining water might be sent to the local wastewater facility for further processing and treatment.

So, although the remaining water is being put to use, this ratio is obviously not great across several sustainability and resource management aspects.

 

Large Desalination Plants Can Negatively Impact The Ocean & Biodiversity

There might be two main ways this happens:

– The intake pipes that are used to collect water supplies for treatment can collect a range of marine species like plankton, fish eggs, larvae, and microbial organisms.

Not only does this harm the wildlife and living organisms themselves, but it can also impact the ocean food chain, humans that rely on it, and local fishermen.

 

– Additionally, brine (as a waste product) dumped back into the ocean can cause certain problems

 

May Sometimes Only Produce Enough Water To Meet A Certain % Of Drinking Water Supply

It can be difficult to scale desalination to a level to provide all of a region’s potable and non potable fresh water needs – for example, it may provide some portion of drinking water needs, but non potable water (for irrigation and other activities) may still need to come from other sources.

 

Some People Think Of Desalination As A ‘Silver Bullet’ Solution To Some Water Supply Issues

This is not the case.

With some of the current challenges that desalination technology faces, it likely can’t provide all of a city or town’s freshwater needs at this stage.

It may not be a long term sustainable solution based on currently available technology (unless changes are made)

 

Some Water Experts May Not Think That Desalination Is Not A Primary Long Term Solution

Some water experts think that desalination is not a primary long term solution.

The sustainable management of water withdrawals vs water deposits in the first place – which might prevent the need for desalination – might be more sustainable (for regions with adequate fresh water supplies), as well as engaging with transboundary water transfers.

Some water experts say that waste water recycling might have more long term potential than desalination.

 

Some Individual Cities Have Experienced Problems With Implementing Desalination

Referencing a report by waterstories.co.za, we mention in a separate guide how Cape Town may have encountered problems implementing desalination technology, with cost being a problem, but also ocean water containing chemicals.

 

 

Sources

1. https://vittana.org/13-important-desalination-plants-pros-and-cons

2. https://greengarageblog.org/12-biggest-pros-and-cons-of-desalination

3. https://brandongaille.com/22-top-pros-and-cons-of-desalination/

4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desalination

5. https://theconversation.com/better-water-planning-could-avoid-desalination-794

6. Various ‘Better Meets Reality’ guides

7. https://www.ide-tech.com/en/solutions/desalination/what-is-desalination/?data=item_1

8. http://large.stanford.edu/courses/2011/ph240/parise2/

9. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adelaide_Desalination_Plant

10. http://www.twdb.texas.gov/innovativewater/desal/faq.asp#title-18

11. https://theconversation.com/cities-turn-to-desalination-for-water-security-but-at-what-cost-110972

12. https://www.wateronline.com/doc/innovation-leads-the-way-to-solving-desalination-challenges-0001

13. http://www.veoliawatertechnologies.co.za/water-solutions/desalination/brackish-water-desalination/#c318c523C1

14. https://www.fluencecorp.com/five-reasons-for-inland-desalination/

15. https://theconversation.com/drought-proofing-perth-the-long-view-of-western-australian-water-36349

16. https://theconversation.com/cape-town-is-almost-out-of-water-could-australian-cities-suffer-the-same-fate-90933

17. https://theconversation.com/is-perth-really-running-out-of-water-well-yes-and-no-90857

18. https://www.wired.com/story/desalination-is-booming-but-what-about-all-that-toxic-brine/

19. https://www.mercurynews.com/2019/09/27/100-million-desalination-project-to-be-led-by-lawrence-berkeley-national-lab

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